Mockito at googlecode

September 6, 2011 domain fails to redirect to Please use the latter link for the mockito site at googlecode. Hopefully, it will be fixed soon. When it’s fixed this link should work:

Have a good one!

//given //when //then forever

December 7, 2009
public void shouldDoSomethingCool() throws Exception {


I like to call it the Ultimate Test Template. I’m so fond of those 3 little comments but surprisingly, I didn’t buy it at first. Micheal (it’s you, tapestry-maven-iPhone fan boy =), friend from ThoughtWorks showed me it a couple of years ago. Actually, he didn’t show it to me – I just overheard him coaching a young dev about it. That day I thought I didn’t need any hip comments because my tests were great anyway. It was foolish.

Don’t be a fool like me and start writing //given //when //then today. Life is too short for messing around – you want to get level 85 in software craftsmanship soon, right? Here’s the deal: use the template for 1 iteration and if you don’t like the results then I will give you your money back. Seriously, no matter what you think about it – buy it! BTW. If you need to document some ‘exceptional’ behavior in your test somewhere there is the template for tests with exceptions.

Lately, I’ve been selling //given //when //then quite relentlessly. I even try to sell it via Mockito api. (The link also shows how to install the template in Eclipse so don’t miss it!)

I tried to lobby for the Church of given-when-then in Krakow, Warsaw & Kiev. I heard rumors that Wroclaw develops a growing number of brothers and sisters in faith =)

I think I forgot to thank Dan North for given-when-then and Liz Keogh for the idea of BDD aliases in Mockito. There you go!

Mockito in Zurich

June 21, 2009

I will have a pleasure presenting Mockito at Jazoon in Zurich. My session is on Thursday – make sure you don’t miss it. During the session I’m going to show few slides and do live TDD with Mockito & other mocking frameworks. I’m going to use Infinitest. Guys, it’s huge. Brett Schuchert wrote about it, Bartek told me to try it several times. Finally I did and I must say I’m impressed. Infinitest is like transcending to a real TDD.

subclass-and-override vs partial mocking vs refactoring

January 13, 2009

Attention all noble mockers and evil partial mockers. Actually… both styles are evil :) Spy, don’t mock… or better: do whatever you like just keep writing beautiful, clean and non-brittle tests.

Let’s get to the point: partial mocking smelled funny to me for a long time. I thought I didn’t need because frankly, I haven’t found a situation where I could use it.

Until few days ago when I found a place for it. Did I just come to terms with partial mocks? Maybe. Interestingly, partial mock scenario seems to be related with working with code that we don’t have full control of…

I’ve been hacking a new feature for mockito, an experiment which suppose to enhance the feedback from a failing test. On the way, I encountered a spot where partial mocking appeared handy. I decided to code the problem in few different ways and convince myself that partial mocking is a true blessing.

Here is an implementation of a JunitRunner. I trimmed it a little bit so that only interesting stuff stayed. The runner should print warnings only when the test fails. The is wrapped in a separate method so that I can replace this method from the test:


How would the test look like? I’m going to subclass-and-override to replace runTestBody() behavior. This will give me opportunity to test the run() method.


It’s ugly but shhh… let’s blame the jUnit API.

The runTestBody() method is quite naughty but I’ve got a powerful weapon at hand: partial mocking. What’s that? Typically mocking consist of using a replacement of the entire object. Partial stands for replacing only the part of real implementation, for example a single method.

Here is the test, using hypothetical Mockito partial mocking syntax. Actually, shouldn’t I call it partial stubbing?


Both tests are quite similar. I test MockitoJUnitRunner class by replacing the implementation of runTestBody(notifier). First example uses test specific implementation of the class under test. Second test uses a kind of partial mocking. This sort of comparison was very nicely done in this blog post by Phil Haack. I guess I came to the similar conclusion and I believe that:

  • subclass-and-override is not worse than partial mocking
  • subclass-and-override might give cleaner code just like in my example. It all depends on the case at hand, though. I’m sure there are scenarios where partial mocking looks & reads neater.

Hold on a sec! What about refactoring? Some say that instead of partial mocking we should design the code better. Let’s see.

The code might look like this. There is a specific interface JunitTestBody that I can inject from the test. And yes, I know I’m quite bad at naming types.


Now, I can inject a proper mock or an anonymous implementation of entire JunitTestBody interface. I’m not concerned about the injection style because I don’t feel it matters that much here. I’m passing JunitTestBody as an argument.


Let’s draw some conclusions. In this particular scenario choosing refactoring over partial mocking doesn’t really push me towards the better design. I don’t want to get into details but junit API constrains me a bit here so I cannot refactor that freely. Obviously, you can figure out a better refactoring – I’m just yet another java developer. On the other hand, the partial mocking scenario is a very rare finding for me. I believe there might be something wrong in my code if I had to partial mock too often. After all, look at the tests above – can you say they are beautiful? I can’t.


  • I cannot say subclass-and-override < partial mocking
  • not always refactoring > subclass-and-override/partial mocking
  • partial mocking might be helpful but I’d rather not overuse it.
  • partial mocking scenario seems to lurk in situations where I cannot refactor that freely.

Eventually, I chose subclass-and-override for my implementation. It’s simple, reads nicer and feels less mocky & more natural.

more of devoxx, more on interfaces

December 9, 2008

I gave my talk at devoxx and hopefully those who attended were not offended by my weird sense of humor :) Guys, we need to have more fun in IT…

Shortly after I gave the talk I had an interesting discussion about the coding style some folks call “coding to interfaces”. It started when I was asked if Mockito is able to mock concrete classes? The answer is yes, Mockito doesn’t care if you mock an interface or a class. Mockito can do it thanks to primordial voodoo magic only ancient shamans understand these days (you guessed right – it’s the cglib library).

Here starts the controversy. Should Mockito allow to mock only interfaces and hence promote “coding to interfaces”? Dan North, a respected IT guru and Mockito friend, said between the lines of one of his articles:

it allows me to mock concrete classes which I think is a retrograde step – remember kids, mock roles, not objects

What about the guy who approached me after the Mockito session told me a story about the codebase deeply proliferated with interfaces? Interfaces were introduced by developers not because they wanted to mock roles, not objects but because the mocking framework they used “promoted” coding to interfaces. This codebase was not very friendly.

To me, interface frenzy makes the codebase hard to browse, for example due to extra effort required to find implementation. Also, too many interfaces dilute the actual meaning of those interfaces that are really important. Therefore sometimes I mock classes, sometimes I mock interfaces and Mockito deals with it transparently. There are situations where I always use interfaces but let’s not bring it here.

I remember some old-school java book I read years ago. It read: “every java class should have an interface“. Don’t believe everything you read and the best example would be this blog, wouldn’t it?.

Use the coding style that works best for you. Drink mockitos only with interfaces if you like it this way.

devoxx 2008

December 8, 2008

I’m now at Antwerp, attending to devoxx 2008 conference, watching a session about REST. In few hours I’m giving a session called ‘Mockito in Action‘. Wish me luck because I have a tight schedule and there are many point of failures when writing code ‘live’ during the session :)

So far devoxx is quite impressive – I love the idea of using cinema rooms for conference sessions!

I wish there was a mocking framework…

November 3, 2008

Let’s start from the beginning. Lately, I’ve been quite busy (perhaps lazy is a better word, though) and I couldn’t find time to sharply reply to few interesting blog articles. Dan North became a friend of Mockito and wrote about the end of endotesting. His post sparked few interesting comments. Steve Freeman wrote:

But, it also became clear that he wrote Mockito to address some weak design and coding habits in his project and that the existing mocking frameworks were doing exactly their job of forcing them into the open. How a team should respond to that feedback is an interesting question.

Well, I wrote Mockito because I needed a simple tool that didn’t get in the way and gave readable & maintainable code.

In fact, the syntactic noise in jMock really helps to bring this out, whereas it’s easy for it to get lost with easymock and mockito.

When something is hard to test it gives excellent feedback about the quality of the code under test. If you’re a developer then your main responsibility is to respond to this feedback. jMock guys came up with this excellent metaphor: “you should listen to your tests“.

I wish there was a mocking framework which gave positive feedback when the production code was clean but gave negative feedback when the design was weak. When I used jMock I had an impression that the feedback is negative all the time, regardless of the quality of the design. Good code or bad code – the syntactic noise was present in every test. If the feedback is always negative how do I know when the design is weak?

Patrick Kua writes in his blog:

That’s why that even though Mockito is a welcome addition to the testing toolkit, I’m equally frightened by its ability to silence the screams of test code executing poorly designed production code

Mockito tends to give positive feedback. It keeps the syntactic noise low so the tests are usually clean regardless of the design. If the feedback is always positive how do I know when the design is weak?

So, what brings out design issues better – jMock or Mockito? Go figure: the first gives too much noise, the second is too silent. Before you join the debate, please note that the discussion is fairly academic. After all it is nothing else but looking at the mocking syntax and thinking how it influences the production code.

Can we really say that the quality of the production code is different when tested with different mocking framework? We strive to build fabulous mocking frameworks but high quality code is the result of skill, experience and so much more than just a choice between Mockito or jMock, TypeMock or RhinoMock, expectations before or after, etc.

At this moment, for unknown reason, one of the readers suddenly remembered the test he wrote last week. The one that required 17 mock objects. Which one? The one where the mock is told to return the mock, to return the mock, to return the mock, to return the mock, to return the mock. Then assert something equals seven. Oh yeah, that one! The test looked quite horrible but hey, you know what they say, better bad test than no test. Obviously, this ugly jMock made the test unreadable. The design was absolutely flawless because there were many patterns used. Fortunately, the team started using Mockito the following week! The rumor was that Mockito test became unreadable only if the number of mocks per test (MPT) exceeded 25. Awesome! Next week, the eager developer was unpleasantly surprised with Mockito. The test with MPT 17 was looking as horrible. To solve the problem, the team decided to install EasyMock.

I haven’t participated in enough java projects but I dare to say this: The quality of design was no better when we did hand mocking, EasyMocking, jMocking or drinking Mockitos. Somehow drinking Mockitos was much pleasant experience, maybe because it’s darn good drink.

No hangover guaranteed. (Eastern Europeans only).